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In the following pages fundamental principles of Islam, some part of elementary teachings of Islam, viz:-

Prayer and to it significance declaration, of faith, some information about the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), cleaning of body by way of (a) Wudu (Ablution) (b) Ghusal (Bath) (c) Tayammum, and Azan, detailed method of offering the Prayers (Salat) along with illustration, have been given in Question/Answer form, simply for the sake of easy understanding. It is to be left in mind that                these Question/Answers are between Muslim Teacher/Student.



(The fundamental principles of Islam)


There are five fundamental principles of Islam viz:-

  • To accept that there in no deity but Allah and Muhammad (PBUH) is the Prophet of Allah.
  • To establish Prayer.
  • Payment of ZAKAT               Islamic alms.
  • Fasting in the month of RAMADAN.
  • Hajj (Obligatory on those who can afford easily).

Prayer is obligatory in Islam and it has to be offered five times a day under all circumstances. There is absolutely no option form it, whether one is ill or infirm. However in case of state of sickness or disability prayer may be performed in sitting posture or just by mere gestures if the person is too weak to get up.

Man is composed of two basic elements, which are spirit and matter. Prayer is in fact a compulsory exercise for the spirit just as we take food many times a day to sustain and nourish our material structure, i.e. our body. It is a programming towards Rightness.
Main features essential for offering prayers are sound intentions, humility, awe, reverence and presence of heart. Imam Ghazali insists on the need for reverence and awe on the part of those who come into the presence of God. If this is lacking, he says what is the words of your prayer?
Prayer is confidential audience with Almighty and how can that take place with neglect? He quotes the words of the Prophet who said, “God does not regard the prayer of any man whose heart is not present with his body”.
Al-Muhasibi another Muslim philosopher has said stand before God as slaves stand in the presence of their masters with humility awe and reverence. He says, “O my brothers, recognise the power of Him before whom you stand and show Him reverence which is His due”.
It is said of Hussain Bin Ali that when he performed ablution, he used to change colour, and when asked the reason, said “Do you not realize in whose presence I am about to stand?

Al-Ghazali who has devoted several chapters to the “Presence” of the heart in prayer, says that “Presence” of the heart means the freedom of the heart from all except its attention to Him with whom it is concerned. Not only your heart is present when you come in the presence of someone who is accounted great in this world, but has no power to injure you or benefit you, ought it not therefore to be present when you are in confidential inter-action with the King of Kings, whose sovereign power controls all that comes to you of good or evil? You show honour to one another and listen in silence to whom belong all glory and majesty, more worthy of reverence? Why do you not give greater honour to Him who is Almighty than you give to His creatures? The presence of the heart is attained by concentrating the attention, and since your heart follows after that which concerns it”. Exert yourself says Al-Muhasibi, my brethren, to ensure the presence of your hearts in prayer and do not be deceived by those whose bodies are present in prayer while their hearts are directed towards the vanities of this world.


1.Q What is the first principle of Islam?

  1. The first principle of Islam is to declare:


i.e., “There is no deity but Allah and Muhammad (PBUH) is the Apostle of Allah.
2.Q. Are there any other forms of the declaration of Faith?
A. Yes there are four other forms, viz.:-

(1) Kalimatush-shahadat

Declaration or Submission of Evidence, viz,.

i.e., I bear witness that there is no deity but Allah, Who is without partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad (PBUH) is His Servant and Apostle.

Declaration of the Glory Allah, viz.,
i.e., ‘Glory be to Allah and praise; there is no deity but All; Allah is Most Great; there no power, no-might but from Allah, the most High, the Great’

Declaration of the Oneness of Allah: viz.,
i.e., “There is none worthy of worship but Allah; He is  One and has no partner ; His is the Kingdom (of the whole universe) and unto Him is due all praise; He gives life and He causes death; In His hand is all good, and He has power over all things.
(4)Kalimatu raddil-kufr.

Declaration of the
Refutation of Disbelief, viz.,

Allahumma inni a’Oozu bika min an ushrika bika shai’an wa ana a’lamu wa astaghfiruka lima la a’lamu innaka anta ‘Allam ul-ghuyoobi tubtu ‘anhu wa tabarratu ‘n kulli deenin siwa deen il-Islami wa aslamtu wa aqoolu la ilaha ill-Allahu Muhammad-ur-rasool-ullah.

i.t., ‘O Allah! Verily do I seek refuge in thee from associating any partner with thee knowingly; I beseech thy forgiveness for the sins which I am not aware of; verily, thou art the Best knower of all secrets. I repent for all the sins and make myself proof against all teachings except the teachings of Islam I have entered the fold of Islam, and Muhammad (PBUH) is the Apostle of Allah.

3.Q. Who was Muhammad (PBUH)?
A. Muhammad (PBUH) is the Rasool, i.e., the Messenger and Prophet of Allah who received the Messeage from Allah through Divine revelation and conveyed the same to humanity.

4.Q. Where was the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) born?
A. Muhammad (PBUH) the Messenger and Prophet of Allah, was born at Mecca in Arabia.

5.Q. Do you know the genealogy (Lineage or Pedigree) of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)?
A. Yes. I can name up to his father’s great grand-father, and know that he is descended from Prophet Abraham (PBUH). He was the son of Abdullah, son of Hashim, who was the son of ‘Abd Manaf.

6.Q.  How was the Prophet brought up?
A.‘Abdullah, the Prophet’s father died before his infancy. He was, then, for a short time under the care of his grand-father Abdul Muttalib, who also expired a few years later. His uncle, Abu Talib, then, became his guardian.

7.Q. How was the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) educated?
A. He did not receive any instruction through human agency and as such, he did not know how to read or write. His education was solely due to Divine sources.

8.Q. When and where was the Message of Allah first revealed to our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):
A. The Message of Allah was first revealed to our Prophet through angel Jibreel (Gabriel), at the age of forty, in the cave at the foot of Mount Hira in Mecca.

9.Q.What regard had the people of Mecca for our Prophet before he announced his prophet hood?
A. The people of Mecca had a very great regard for him. They honoured and respected him for his integrity and honesty and were so much impressed with there qualities and also with the nobility and gentleness of his character that they conferred upon him the title of  i.e., the Trustworthy before he proclaimed his Prophet-hood.

10.Q. Did the people of Mecca in general accept Muhammad as a Prophet when he first delivered to them the Message from Allah?
A. No. The people of Mecca in general did not accept Muhammad as a Prophet (PBUH); when he first delivered to them the Message of Allah against idols and idolatry. Only a few embraced Islam. Others persecuted him and his followers, so much that he, along with his followers, was compelled to seek refuge in Medina.

11.Q. What is the migration of the prophet from Mecca to Medina called?
A. The migration of the Prophet (PBUH) from Mecca to Medina is called AL HIJRA. The Muslim calendar commences from the day of the migration.

12.Q. How did the people of Medina receive our Prophet?
A. Most of the people of Medina received the Prophet with kindness, believed in his teaching and mission and embraced Islam.

13.Q. When did our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) die and where he is buried?
A. Our Prophet died at the age of sixty-three and is buried in Medina, with premises of Masjid-e-Nabwi.

14.Q.Should we visit the tomb of our Prophet?
A. Yes, we should visit the tomb of our Prophet at Medina, preferably after the Perform-ance of Hajj (Pilgrimage) to Mecca, for our Prophet has said:

i.e., whoever (of my followers) visits my tomb it is binding on his (or her) behalf (Mercy and forgiveness) on his (or her) behalf (on the day of judgement).

15.Q. Should you love your Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)?
A. Yes, I should love my Prophet and pay greater respect to him than to any other human being including parents.



1.Q. What is the second Principle of Islam?
A. The second Principle of Islam is to offer the Obligatory Prayers five times a day.

2.Q. What do you understand by Prayer?
A. Prayer is the act of worshipping Allah according to the teaching of the Holy Prophet (PBUH).

3.Q. What are the essential requisites for offering prayer?
A. The essential requisites for offering prayer:-

  1. The worshipper must be a Muslim.
  2. The worshipper’s clothes and body must be Clean.
  3. The place where the prayer is to be offered should be clean.
  4. The part of the body between the navel and the knees of a male worshipper must be fully covered, and the whole body excepting the hands and face of a female worshipper.
  5. The worshipper must face the Kaba the Great Mosque at Mecca and the direction of Kaba outside Mecca.
  6. The worshipper must form the niyyat (i.e., intention) in his or her mind of the particular Prayer, Fard  Sunnat or Nafal (Optional), he or she is about to offer.
  7. The worshipper must observe the times and rules prescribed for the respective Prayers.
  8. The worshipper must have performed the wudu (i.e., ablution).
  9. The worshipper must have performed Ghusl (i.e., the washing of the whole body) if he or she was in a state of grave impurity.

Note:- In order to keep the body clean from dirt and all minor impurities and to be ever ready for prayer, a Muslim must wash the private parts of his or her body with water.

1.Q. What is Wudu?
A. Wudu is the act of washing those parts of the body which are generally exposed.

2.Q. How do you perform the wudu?
A. I perform the wudu in the following manner:-

  1. I make myself sure that the water with which I am going to perform Wudu is pure, clean and fresh (not used before) and its colour, taste and smell are unchanged.
  2. I have the full intention of performing the Wudu for offering prayer.
  3. I recite: “Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim”, i.e., in the Name of Allah, the Benficent, the Merciful.
  4. I then wash my hands upto the wrists three times, passing the fingers in between each other.
  5. I cleanse my mouth with brush or finger, and gargle with water three times.
  6. Then I rinse the nostrils thrice with water.
  7. I wash the face from the forehead to the chin bone and from ear to ear three times.
  8. I then wash the right arm followed by the left upto the elbows three times.
  9. I then brush up the whole head with wet hands, pass the wet tips of the index finger inside and the wet tips of the thumb outside the ears, and pass over the other surface of the hands over the nape and the side of the neck.
  10. I then wash the feet upto the ankles, taking care to wash in between the toes, each three times.

3.Q. What are the obligatory acts in the performance of Wudu?
A. The Obligatory acts in the performance of Wudu are four, viz.:

  1. Washing the face.
  2. Washing both the arms upto the elbows.
  3. Brushing over a quarter of the head with wet hands.
  4. Washing both feet up to the ankles.


  1. If the water to be used for Wudu one should make sure that the cistern measures ten yards by ten yards by one foot and is full of water.

If a person wears impermeable foot gear there it is not necessary to remove it for a fresh Wudu. One may just pass over its fingers as if one were? tracing lines on it. Travellers can take advantage of this concession for three days and three nights, others for one day and one night.


1.Q. When does Ghusal become obligatory?
A. Ghusal becomes obligatory after:

  1. Sexual intercourse.
  2. Discharge or effusion of semen.
  3. Completion of menses and confinement.

2.Q. Can you name the obligatory conditions that must be fulfilled for a valid performance of an obligatory Ghusal?
A. The obligatory condition that must be fulfilled for a valid performance of an obligatory Ghusal are:

  1. To rinse the mounth thoroughly, so that all the parts are cleaned properly.
  2. To rinse the nose right upto the nasal bone.
  3. To wash all the parts of the body thoroughly, including the hair.

3.Q. What is the best way of performing an obligatory Ghusal?
A. The best way of performing an obligatory Ghusal is:

  1. The person should have the intention (Niyyat) to cleanse the body from grave impurity.
  2. He or she should wash the hands upto the wrists thrice.
  3. Then the private parts must be washed thoroughly thrice.
  4. Filth must be removed if there be any, from any of the parts of the body.
  5. One should then perform an ablution.
  6. One should lastly wash thrice all the parts of the body, including the hair thoroughly.


1.Q. What should a person do in place of Wudu or Ghusal, if one is sick or access cannot be had to water?
A. When a person is sick or access cannot be had to water, one may perform what is called Tayammum in place of Wudu or Ghusal.

2.Q. What are the essential requisites for the performance of a Tayammum?
A. The essential requisites for the performance of a Tayamumm are:

  1. To have the intention in mind to perform the Tayammum for the removal of impurities.
  2. To strike pure earth lightly with the palms of both the hands.
  3. To pass the palms of the hands over the face once.
  4. To again strike lightly pure earth with the palms of both the hands and rub alternately from the tips of the fingers to the elbows, the forearms and the hands beginning with the Right Hand.


1.Q. Do you know the acts or circumstances which make Wudu void?
A. Yes; the acts or circumstances which make the Wudu void are:

  • Answering the call of nature; discharge of semen or issue of worm or sandy stone or any impure matter from the front or the hind private parts.
  • The passage of wind from the hind private part.
  • The act of vomiting a mouthful of matter.
  • Emission of blood, puss or yellow matter from a wound, boil-imple., etc., to such an extent that it passes the limits of the mouth of the wound etc.
  • Loss of consciousness through sleep, drowsiness etc.
  • Temporary insanity, fainting fist, hysteria or intoxication.
  • Audible laughter during prayer.

2.Q. Do the same occurrences nullify Tayammum also?
A. Yes; the same occurrences nullify Tayammum also, but in addition Tayammum is nullified as soon as the cause for performing it is removed, i.e., if the sick person recovers, or if recourse has been taken of water, and access to water becomes possible.

3.Q. What acts are forbidden without the performance of Wudu or the Tayammum as the case may be?
A. The following three acts are forbidden without the performance of Wudu or Tayammum as the case may be:

  1. Prayer.
  2. Walking round the holy Kaba in Mecca (Tawaf).
  3. Carrying or touching the Holy Quran.

children who have not attained the age of discretion, i.e., about seven years, can carry the holy
Quran for the purpose of studying.

4.Q. Does Wudu convey any inner meaning besides the cleanliness of the body?
A.Yes, the primary cleanliness and purity, i.e., Purity, freedom from sins which is the main object of religion. It is preferable, therefore, to recite the following after Wudu:-

Allahummaj ‘alni minattawwabeena
waj ‘alni minal mutatahhireen.

‘O Allah! Make me from among those who repent for their sins and from among those who keep themselves pure.

1.Q. What is Azan?
A. Azan is the first call to Prayer.

2.Q. When and why is the Azan given/uttered?
A. The Azan is given/uttered in a loud voice to announce to the faithful that it is time for the obligatory prayer and to invite them to offer the same.

3.Q. How is Azan recited?
A. Azan is recited in a loud voice by the Muezzin (the crier) facing the direction of the Kaba in the following words which are said in the order mentioned:

(1) Allahu Akbar      i.e., “Allah is most Great” (four times).

  • Ashhadu an la ilaha illa-Allah.

i.e., “I bear witness that there is none worthy of being worshipped except Allah”. (twice).

  • Ash-hadu anna Muhammad-ar-rasoolullah

i.e., “I bear witness that Muhammad (PBUH) is the Apostle of Allah” (twice)

  • Hayya ‘alas-salah

i.e., “come to Prayer” (turning the face alone to the right and saying it twice)

  • Hayya ‘alal-falah
                                                                                          i.e., “Come to success” (turning the face alone to the left and saying it twice)

  • Allahu Akbar         i.e., “Allah is Most Great” (twice)
  • La ilaha illa-Allah

i.e., “There is no deity but Allah (once).
Note:- The following phrase is added after item

  1. in the Azan of the early morning prayer.
    Viz., “As-salatu Khairum minannaum”

i.e., Prayer is better than sleep” (to be said twice).

4. (a)  IQAMAT

1.Q. What is iqamat and when is it uttered?

 A.Iqamat is the second call to prayer and is uttered immediately before the beginning of the obligatory Prayer (fard). It is similar to Azan but with an addition sentence, “Qad qamatis-salah”

i.e., “Prayer has indeed begun” to be uttered twice after (5) above.


1.Q. What is are the obligatory (Fard) Factors in Prayer?
A. The obligatory Factors in a Prayer are seven in number:

  1. To say takbir-I-tahrimah.
  2. Qiyam, i.e., standing in an upright position and placing the right hand upon the left below the navel.
  3. To recite some verses from the holy Quran.
  4. Ruku, i.e., bowing down in such a way as to grasp the knees with the hands keeping the back in a straight line so as to form a right angle with legs.
  5. Sajdah, i.e., prostrating in such a way that both the palms of the hands, the forehead, the nasal bone, the knees and the toes of both feet touch the ground; there must be sufficient space between the arms and the chest and the legs and the belly so that they do not touch each other but remain separate.
  6. Qadah, i.e., sitting down in a reverential posture, keeping right foot erect on the toes and the left one in a reclining position under the rumps.
  7. To signify the completion of prayer by word or action.

2.Q. can you name some of the essentials (wajib) of Prayer?
A. The observance of the following eight points is very essential in any Prayer.

  • To say Takbir-I-tahrima, viz., “Allahuakbar.
  • To recite the opening chapter of the Holy Quran (the Fatiah).
  • To recite any of the other chapter or at least three consecutive verses of the Holy Quran.
  • The recitation of the opening chapter must precede the recitation of any other chapter or three consecutive verses of the Holy Quran.
  • To avoid a pause between the recitation of the opening chapter and any other chapter or three consecutive verses of the holy Quran.


Principles of religion
NOTE: legs must be 4 to 6 inches apart only and not more.


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NOTE: The eyes of the worshipper pinned to the
spot where the forehead would rest in sajdah (prostration).


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Fundamental principles of Islam
NOTE: The eyes of the worshipper are pinned on to his toes. He is not to bend too much down or keep raised up shoulders.


Fundamental principles of Islam


Fundamental principles of Islam
NOTE: The thumbs of the worshipper are almost in a straight line with the eyes and the fingers are all closed together and almost below the ears. The elbows must not touch the floor.


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NOTE: The eyes are on the lap and the hands rest on the thighs the fingers not falling on the knees. It is important that one must sit straight fully before resuming the second sajdah (prostration).


Fundamental principles of Islam


Fundamental principles of Islam
NOTE: the second rak’at is performed in the same manner as described illustrated for the first rak’at, (See-illustration; Nos. 1 to 9.)


Fundamental principles of Islam


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NOTE: That the eyes of the worshipper are focused on to his right shoulder.


Fundamental principles of Islam

NOTE: that the eyes of the worshipper are focused on to his left shoulder.

Fundamental principles of Islam
NOTE: the hands of the worshipper are not higher than his chest and not more than 6 inches away from the chest. Also the eyes must be pinned on to the palms of the hands. Both hands must be together as illustrated.

To perform Namaz in the sitting position here are some of the differences tha lhan of the standing posture.

Fundamental principles of Islam

NOTE: the eyes of the worshipper are pinned on the spot where the forhead would rest in Sajdah vest.


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NOTE: How the palm of the right hand is placed on the left, the three fingers are kept together whilst the thumb and the little finger are used to hold the other hand.


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NOTE: The eyes of the worshipper are pinned to the spot where the forehead would rest in Sajdah. 

The succeeding postures are to be performed as illustrated and explained in illustrations: Nos, 6 to 13.

  1. To assume all the postures correctly, i.e., undignified haste must not be practised in changing the postures and reasonable pauses must be observed at each stage.


1.Q. Can you give a complete description of the performance of prayer?
A. Yes. A Prayer consists of either two, there or four Rakats’ and a Rakat’ is performed thus:-

  1. I stand straight, facing the direction of Ka’ba in Mecca, and after having the Niyyat, i.e., the intention in my mind of what prayer I am about to offer and preferably uttering it to myself;
  2. I raise both of my hands upto the ears and, saying “Allahu Akbar,” bring them down and place the right hand upto the left below the navel.
  3. I then recite:-

(a) Subhanak-Allhumma wa bihamdika wa tabaraasmuka wa ta’ala jadduka wa la ilaha ghairuka.

i.e., ‘All Glory be to thee, O Allah! And praise be to thee; blessed is thy name and exalted thy Majesty; and there is none worthy of worship besides thee’.

i.e., ‘I betake myself to Allah for refuge from the accursed satan.

(C) Bismillah-I-Rahman-ir-Raheem .


i.e., ‘(I begin) in the mane of Allah, the beneficent the Merciful.
(d) I then recite the Opening Chapter of the Holy Qur’an  (the Fatiha), viz.,
i.e., ‘All Praise is due to Allah, Lord of the worlds, the Beneficent, the Merciful, Owner of the day of judgment. Thee alone we worship and thee alone we ask for help. Show us the straight path, the path of those whom thou hast favoured , not (the path of) those who earn Thine anger nor (of) those who go astray Amen!’
(e) I immediately follow up this by reciting some passage from the holy Qur’an, which should not consist of less than three consecutive verses. For the purpose any one of the small chapters may be selected as for instance, the chapter termed “The unity” viz:-

i.e., ‘Say: He is Allah, the one-Allah, the eternally besought of all! He begets not, nor is He begotten. And there is none comparable unto Him.
Note:- If a small chapter be recited, it is preferable to precede it by: “Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem.
(f) Then saying “Allhu Akbar”, I bow down in Ruku and say thrice:-

Subhana Rabbiyal-‘Azeem.

i.e., ‘How glorious is my Lord, the Great!’
(g) I again is my Lord, the standing position, letting the hands remain on the sides and say:

Sami ‘Allhau liman hamidah.
Rabbana lakal-hamd.

i.e., ‘Allah has listened to him who has praised him; our Lord praise be to thee.
(h) Then, saying “Allahu Akbar” I prostrate myself and perform the Sajdah, saying thrice:-
Subhana Rabbiyal-a’la.

i.e., All glory be to my Lord, the most high.’
(i) I then raise myself and, sitting for a while in a reverential posture, termed Jalsah, say once:-
Allahummaghfirli warhamni.

i.e., ‘O Allah! Forgive me and have mercy upon me.
(j) I then perform the second Sajdah exactly in the same way as the first one.
This finishes one Rakat. I then say “Allahu Akbar” and, standing upright once again, repeat all that I had done in the performance of the first Rakat’ with the exception of items (a) and (b) which are meant to be recited in the first Rakat’ only.
(k) After the second Rakats second Sajdah is
over, I, saying “Allahu Akbar” sit down in the reverential posture called, Qa’datul-oola (first sitting) or Qa’datul-Akhira (last sitting) as the case may be, and recite Tashahhud alone in the former case viz:-

At-tahiyyatu lillahi wassalawatu wat-taiyyabatu assalamu ‘alaika ayyuhannabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu assalamu ‘alaina wa ‘ala ‘ibadillah-is-saliheen, ash-hadu an la ilaha ill-Allahu wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhoo wa Rasooluh.

i.e., ‘All worship, all sanctity are due to Allah. Peace be on you O Prophet! And the mercy of Allah and his Blessing. Peace be on us and all the righteous servants of Allah. I bear witness to the fact that none is deserving of worship except Allah and I bear witness to the fact that Muhammad is His servant and Apostle.

(l) If more than two Rakats are to be performed I, saying “Allahu Akbar” stand up again and completing one or two Rakats as the case may be, sit down in the reverential posture called “Qa’datul-Akhira, which is also obviously adopted if the prayer consists of tow Rakats only in the reverential posture, I recite in addition tashahhud, the salawat, viz.,

i.e., ‘O Allah! Shower thy blessings on our leader Muhammad and his descendants as Thou showeredest thy blessings on our leader Abraham and his descendants; verily, thou art the Praise-worthy, the Glorious.
‘O Allah! Bless our leader Muhammad and his descendants as thou blessedest our leader Abraham and his descendants; verily, thou art the praise-worthy, the Glorious.
(m) I then recite the following du’a:-
i.e., ‘O Allah! I have been extremely unjust to myself and none grants forgiveness against sins but thou; therefore forgive from thee and have mercy upon me verily, thou art the forgiver, the merciful.
(n) I turn my face to the right and say the salam:-

Assalamu ‘alaikum wa Rahmatullah,

i.e., ‘Peace be upon you and the mercy of Allah’. Then I turn my face to the left and repeat; the Prayer is completed.

2.Q. What should a worshipper do if he or she unconsciously omits any of the essentials of prayer or suspects that he or she has performed more than the prescribed number of Ruku’s, Sajdahs, Rakats, etc.?
A. If a worshipper omits any of the essentials of a prayer or suspects that he or she has performed more than the required number of Ruk’s, Sajdahs, Rek’ats, etc., he or she should perform one salam after reciting Tashahhud and making two Sajdahs, should again recite Tashahhud, Salawat and Du’a and complete the prayer with the usual two salams. (This is called Sajdtus-sahw)

3.Q. What acts nullify a prayer?
A. The acts that nullify by one’s prayer are:

  1. Talking.
  2. Doing any three acts in succession.
  3. Emission of impure matter from the body or the annulment of Wudu in any way.
  4. Drinking or eating during prayer.
  5. Turning the chest away from the direction of ka’ba.
  6. Committing breach of any of the obligatory factors of a prayer.
  7. If the body between the navel and the knees becomes uncovered in the case of males, or any part of the body excepting the hands and the face in the case of females.

4.Q. What does the term Qa’da-tul-oola mean?
A. The reverential sitting posture that one adopts after the completion of the two Rakats, of any particular prayer for the recitation of Tashahhud, Salawat, and Du’a is called Qa’datul Akhira.


1.Q. How many kinds of prayer are there?
A. There are five kinds of prayer viz.,

  • Fard al-amin, i.e., the compulsory prayer that must not be missed on any account whatsoever. This obligatory prayer must be offered at any cost for if one fails to do so he or she will be liable to severe punishment. The nature of its importance is evident from the fact that if one denies its obligatory nature, he or she is classed as an unbeliever.
  • Fard al-kifayah is the kind of prayer which should be offered by all those present at the time, but one at least out of the group must offer it to free the others from responsibility; for example, if any one individual from amongst the inhabitants of a locality where death of a Muslim has taken place or from those who join the funeral procession to the cemetery, offer the ‘Funeral Prayer’, the obligation of all concerned is fulfilled.
  • Wajib is a prayer which comes next in rank of Fard al-ain in accordance with the importance attached to if by the Holy Prophet (PBUH).
  • Sunnat-ul-mu’akkadah is the class of prayer which the Holy Prophet (PBUH) used to offer daily without fail and has ordered his followers to do so. One is liable to be questioned for neglecting to offer the same without some very cogent reacons.
  • Sunnatu ghairil-mu’akkadah is the kind of prayer which the Holy Prophet (PBUH) offered occasionally and desired his followers to do so.
  • Nafl is a voluntary prayer and it is commended for the uplift of one’s soul, and for the acquirement of spiritual benefits.


1.Q. How many kinds of fard prayer are there?
A. There are only tow kinds of Fard prayer, viz.,

  1. The daily obligatory prayers.
  2. The special congregational prayer on Fridays.

2.Q. Can you name the daily obligatory prayer?
A. Yes, the daily obligatory prayers are five in number”

  1. Salatul-Fajr, i.e., the early morning prayer which must be offered after dawn and before sunrise.
  2. Salatus-Zuhr, i.e.,the early afternoon prayer, the time for which commences immediately after the sun begins to decline, and lasts till it is about midway on its course to setting.
  3. Salatl-Asr, i.e., the late afternoon prayer which must be offered sometime after the sun is about midway on its course to setting, until a little before it actually begins to set.
  4. Salatul-Maghrib, i.e., the evening prayer which must be offered between the sunset and the disappearance of the light similar to the light at (twilight) dawn, which follows when west has vanished.
  5. Salatul-Isha, i.e., the night prayer which must be offered any time after the time for Salatul-Maghrib comes to an end, and before the break of dawn, but it should preferably be offered before midnight.

3.Q. How many Rakaks are compulsory in each of the five daily obligatory prayer?
A. The number of Rakats compulsory in the five daily obligatory prayer are:

  1. Two in Salatul-Fajr (The early morning prayer).
  2. Four in Salatul-Zuhr (The early afternoon prayer).
  3. Four in Salatul-asr (late afternoon prayer).
  4. Three in Salatul-Maghrib (The evening prayer).
  5. Four in Salatul-Isha (The night prayer)

4.Q. How many Rakats of Sunnatul-mu’akkadah should be offered along with each of the five daily obligatory prayer?
A.The number of Rakats is as Follows:-

  1. Two before the Fard of Salatul-Fajr.
  2. Four before and two after the Fard of Salatul-Zuhr.
  3. None before or after the Fard of Salatul-Asr.
  4. Two after the Fard of Salatul-Maghrib.
  5. Two after the Fard of Salatul-Isha.


1.Q. When is wajib-ul-witr prayer to be offered?
A. It should be offered after the Fard and Sunnatul-mu’akkadah of Salatul-Isha.

2.Q. Of how many Rakats does it consist?
A. It consists of three Rakats.

3.Q. How dose it differ from other Prayer.
A.It differs from other prayer in this respect, viz., that in the third Rak’at, before one bows down for the performance of ‘Ruku’, one should say:”Allahu Akbar” raising the hands upto the ears, and after placing them in the former position below the navel, one should recite the following Du’a Called Du’aal-Qunoot:-
i.e., ‘O Allah! We beseech thy help and ask thy pardon and believe in thee and trust in thee, and we praise thee in the best manner and we thank thee and we are not ungrateful to thee, and we cast off and forsake one who disobeys thee O Allah! Pray and make obeisance and to thee do we flee and we are quick (in doing so), and we hope for thy mercy and fear thy chastisement; surely thy chastisement overtakes the unbelievers’.
1.Q. How is Salat-ul-Janazah offered ?
A.Salat-ul-Janazah is offered on the congregation as follows:-

  1. The body of the deceased is placed in coffin with its face turned towards the Ka’ba and the Imam standing by its side with intention (Niyyat) of offering Salat-ul-Janazah for that particular dead person raised both hands upto the ears and says “Allahu Akbar”, the congregation following his lead. The usual Niyyat for the Salat-ul-Janazah is:

i.e., ‘I intend to offer for Allah, the Sublime, four Takbirs of Funeral Prayer, Praise for Allah, the Sublime, and Blessings (of Allah) for the Apostle and prayer for this deceased person; I adopt the lead of this Imam, with my face turned in the direction of the honoured kaba’.

  1. The Imam and the congregation then join their hands below the navel and recite:-

Subhank – Allahumma wa bihamdika wa tabarakasmuka wa ta’ala jadduka wa jalla thana’uka wa la ilaha ghairuka.
  1. The Imam and the congregation then say “Allahu Akbar” (this time without raising their hands), and recite the salawat as given on page 223.
The Imam and the congregation then say “Allahu Akbar”, as in (2) above and recite:-

(a) If the deceased had attained the age of puberty, then the following Du’a:-
i.e., ‘O Allah! Pardon our living and our dead, the present and the absent, the young and the old, the males and the females. O Allah! He (or she) to whom thou accordest life, cause him her to live in the observation of Islam and he to whom thou givest death, cause him to die in the state of Iman (faith).
(b) If the deceased is a minor and a boy, then the  following du’a:-

i.e., ‘O Allah! Make him our fore-runner, and make him, for us, a reward and a treasure, and make him, for us, a pleader, and accept his pleading.
(c) If the deceased is a minor and a girl, then the following Du’a:-

i.e., ‘O Allah! Make her our fore-runner, and make her, for us, a reward and a treasure, and make her, for us, a pleader and accept her pleading.’

  1. Then the Imam and the congregation say “Allahu Akbar”. As in (3). Then turning their faces alone to the right they say: “Assalamu ‘alaikum wa rahmatullah”. Then they turn their faces alone to the left and say: “Assalmu ‘alaikum wa rahmatullah”.


1.Q. When should one curtail the obligatory Prayer?
A. When one is traveling with the intention of remaining away forty-eight miles or over from the home, one should offer two Rakats of Fard prayer from those which comprise four, and continue to do the same after one’s arrival at a destination if one does not intend to prolong his or her stay there for fifteen days or  more.


1.Q. At what time is one prohibited to offer Fard, Sunnat or Nafl Prayer?
A. One it is forbidden to offer either Fard, Sunnat or Nafl prayers at:

  1. The time when the sun is rising.
  2. The time when the sun at its zenith.
  3. The time when the sun is setting.

2.Q. Are there any other times when one should not offer the Nafl prayer?
A. Yes, One should not offer Nafl prayers during:-

  • The interval between the offering of the Fard of Salatul-Fajr and the rising of the sun.
  • After the Iqamat is called for any congregational prayer at a mosque.
  • The time between the offering of the Fard of Salat-ul-Asr and the setting of the sun.
  • The time between the Setting of the sun and the offering of the Fard of Maghrib prayers.
  • The time between the Imam’s getting up from his place for delivering the Khutbba, i.e., the sermon, and the completion of Friday congregational Prayer.
  • At the time of any Khutba, e.g., Friday, Eid, etc.
  • The time between the Fajr prayer and the Eid prayers.
  • After the Eid Prayers at the premises where the same have been offered.
  • At the time of Hajj in Arafat after the Zuhr and Asr prayers are offered together.
  • The time between tne Maghrib and ‘Isha prayers at Muzdalifa.
  • When there is very little time left for offering the Fards (obligatory) of any of the daily prayers.
  • When one feels the need to answer a call of nature (urgency to go toilet).


1.Q. What is Salat-ul-Juma?
A. It is a congregational prayer and a Leader (Imam) is necessary to lead the prayers. The Imam first of all delivers a Khutba in two parts consisting of praise to Allah and prayers of Blessing for the Holy Prophet (PBUH), educate and enlighten the congration with teachings of Islam and current affairs. He then prays to Allah for the welfare of All Muslims. After that he leads two Rakats of the Fard of Juma and all other follow him, as usual in congregational prayers.

2.Q. Who should be chosen to lead the Prayers?
A. The one most conversant with Islamic teaching among those present should be requested to lead the prayer.

3.Q. How is the congregational prayer offered?
A. The Imam stands in front of the congregation facing the direction of the ka’ba, and all the other worshippers stand in lines behind him and follow his lead, i.e., They stand when he stand, perform Ruku’ when he does it, and so on.

4.Q. Should a person offering his prayers with a congregation repeat all the requisite recitation?
A. Yes, one should recite everything excepting the Opening Chapter of the Holy Qur’an followed by some other passage from it which the Imam recites on behalf of the congregation.

1.Q. What prayers are offered in congregation in the daily prayers?
A. Only the Fard of each Prayer is offered in a congregation, and not Sunnat or Nafl.

2.Q. What Should one do if one misses the congregation for any prayer (Fard)?
A. If one misses congregation for any prayer, arrange to have another congregation; but if one misses the congregation of Salat-ul-Juma one should offer by oneself the usual Fard of Salat-uz-Zuhr.


1.Q. Of how many Rakats do the Eid-ul-Fitr and ‘Id-ul-Adha Prayers consist?
A. Each one of them consists of two Rakats.

2.Q. How are those two Rakats offered?
A. They are offered in the congregation viz:-

  1. The Imam as usual stands in front of the congregation, and facing the direction of the Ka’ba and having the intention of offering the particular prayers says aloud: “Allhu Akbar” (God is Great), and the congregation follows his lead.
  2. Then the Imam and the congregation place their hands below the navel as usual, and the Imam and the congregation recites Subhanak Allahhumma inaudibly. There after the Imam and the congregation at short intervals perform three “takbeers”, i.e., say “Allahu Akbar”, raising the hands to the ears and letting them remain at the sides at the end of each “takbeer”. After the end of third “takbeer”, the hands are placed below the navel, and the Imam recites audibly Suratul-Fatiha (The opening Chapter) and some other chapter or passage from the Holy Quran and finishes the Rak’at in the prescribed manner.
  3. In the second Rakat, the order is reversed, for the recitation of Qur’anic passages are made first and then the Imam and the congregation perform the three “takbeers” as in the first one, and then saying “Allahu Akbar” for the fourth time, bow down in the Ruku’ and completed the prayer as usual.
  4. After the prayer is over, the Imam mounts the pulpit and delivers two Khutbas or sermons. At the time or ‘Id-ul-Fitr, the Imam explains the commandments regarding the payment or distribution of Sadaqat-ul-fitr and on the occasion of ‘Id-ud-Adha, the commandments about the sacrifice of animals.

Q. What are the daily sunnatu-ghair-il-mu’akkadah prayers?
A. They are:-

  1. Four Rakats before the Fard of Salatul’Asr.
  2. Four Rakats before the Fard of SalatulIsha.


1.Q. What are the various special optional (Nafl) prayers?
A.They are:-

  1. Salat-ul-Ishraq, which consists of two or four Rakats and may be offered after sunrise.
  2. Salat-ul-Duha which consists of two to eight Rakats and may be offered any time after the Salat-ul-Ishraq till the sun’s declination.
  3. Salat-ul-Tahiyya-tul-Masjid, which consists of two Rakats and may be offered on entering a mosque.
  4. Salat-ul-Tahajjud, which consists of four to twelve Rakats and may be offered after mid-night preferably after having slept for some time, this prayer has been specially recommended in the Holy Qur’an for attaining spiritual progress.
  5. Salatul-Kusufain, which consists of two Rakats and may be offered during the eclipse of the sun or the Moon.
  6. Salat-ul-Taravih, which consists of twenty Rakats and is offered in ten salams of two Rakats each, each night in the month of Ramanad only after the obligatory ‘Isha Prayers. It is very commendable to complete the whole. Quran by reciting consecutive portions of it is each of its Rakats after the recitation of the Surat-ul-Fatiha, and thus finish the whole Quran by the end of the month of Ramadan.


Q. In which Rakats of the prayers is the recitation of the Holy Quran made audibly?
A. The recitation of Surat-ul-Fatiha and some other chapter or passage of the Holy Quran is made audibly in:

  1. The two Rakats of the Fard of SalatulFajr.
  2. The First two Rakats of the Fard of Salatul-Maghrib.
  3. The First Two Rakats of the Fard of Salatul-Isha.
  4. The two Rakats of Salatul-Jumu’a.
  5. The two Rakats of both Eid Prayers.
  6. In all the twenty Rakats of the optional Taraveeh prayers in the month of Ramadan.
  7. In the three Rakats of the Wajib-ul-Witr prayers in the month of Ramadan only .

Q. In what Rakats and what prayers is the recitation of the Holy Quran made inaudible?
A. In all the Rakats of the Fard of Salatuz-zuhr and salatul-Asr and the last one and two Rakats respectively of the Salatul-Maghrib and the Salatul-Isha’. The Fatiha alone is recited in these Rakats as also in the last two Rakats of Salatuz-zuhr and Salatul-‘Asr.

Q. What prayers should be offered in congregation?
A. The prayers that should be offered in congregation are:-

  • All Fards of the five obligatory prayers.
  • The Fard of Salatul-Juma.
  • Both the Eid prayers.
  • Salatul-Taraveeh in the month of Ramadan.
  • Wajib-ul-Witr in the month of Ramadan only.
  • Funeral prayer.
  • Salatul-Kausuf.
ZAKAT (Islamic alms-Fee)

1.Q. Can you give the definition of Zakat?
A. Yes. Zakat is the amount in kind or cash which a Muslim of means must distribute among the deserving every years.

2.Q. On whom is Zakat obligatory?
A. Zakat is obligatory on all Muslims who have in their possession for one completed year gold of the minimum weight of seven and a half tolas or silver of the minimum weight of fifty-two and a half tolas (a tola is equivalent in weight to ten grams)

3.Q. What is annual rate of Zakat on gold or silver?
The annual rate is 2 1/2 %.

4.Q. Is Zakat obligatory on gold or silver only?
A. No it is obligatory not only on gold or silver but also on camels, cattle, goats and all articles of trade.

5.Q. Is Zakat obligatory on pearls and precious stones?
A. They are exempted when used as ornaments for personal use, but are liable to Zakat as articles of trade.

6.Q.How should Zakat be calculated on articles of trade?
A. It should be calculated on the net balance of the value of the articles of trade at the end of the year.
7.Q. Among what classes of Muslims and for what Purposes is the Zakat to be distributed and utilized?

A.(a) Zakat: A tax at a fixed rate in proportion to the worth of property, collected from the well-to-do and distributed among the poor Muslims for livelihood and to meet the other expenses relating to Islamic purpose.
(Surah Al Baqarah)
(Holy Quran English translation by Marmaduke Pickthall)
(b) Hazrat Abdullah bin Muawiyah (Allah be pleased with him) has related that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said: There are three acts such that whoever does them will taste the sweetness of Iman – Worshipping Allah alone, believing that no one other them Allah is fit to be worshipped and to paying Zakat on one’s wealth every year that his self urges him to it and feels happy (instead of restraining it).
Note: the rank of Zakat is evident from its being mentioned together with tauhid and its being effect from the fact that is augments the delight of Imam.

(Uswai Rasool-e-Akram (PBUH))
(Dr. Abdul Hai (Reh))
(English translation by Muhammad Muqtadir)


Principle of prayers

By. S.M. Afzal

A Fact Behind The Facts

            Come the haj season, and I am reminded of the wonders of aab-e-Zumzum. Let me go back to how it all started.

In 1971, an Egyptian doctor wrote to the European Press, a letter saying the aab-e-Zumzum was not fit for drinking purposes. I immediately thought that this was just a form of prejudice against the Muslims and that since his statement was based on the assumption that since the khaan-e-kaba was a shallow place (below sea level) and located in the center of the city of Makkah, all the waste water of the city collecting through the drains fell into well holding the water.
Fortunately, the news came to Shah Faisal’s ears who got extremely angry and decided to disprove the Egyptian doctor’s provocative statement. He immediately ordered the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources to investigate and send samples of Aab-e-Zumzum to European laboratories for testing the potability of the Water. The ministry then instructed the Jeddah Power and desalination Plants to carry out this task. It was here that I was employed as a desalting engineer (chemical engineer to produce drinking water from sea water). I was chosen to carry out this assignment. At this stage, I remember that I had no idea what the well holding the water looked like.
I went to Makkah and reported to the authorities at the Khaan-e-kaba explaining my purpose of visit. They deputed a man to give me whatever help was required. When we reached the well, it was hard for me to believe that a pool of water, more like a small pond, about 18 by 14 feet, was the well that supplied millions of gallons of water every year to hajis ever since it came into existence at the time of Hazrat Ibrahim, many, many centuries ago.
I started my investigations and took the dimensions of the well. I asked the man to show me the depth of the well. First he took a shower and descended into the water. Then he straightened his body. I saw that the water level came up to just above his shoulders. His height was around five feet, eight inches.
He then started moving from one corner to the other in the well (Standing all the while since he was not allowed to dip his head into the water) in search of any inlet or pipeline inside the well to see from where the water came in. However, the man reported that he could not find any inlet or pipeline inside the well.
I thought of another idea. The water could be withdrawn rapidly with the help of a big transfer pump which was installed at the well for the Aab-e-Zumzum storage tanks. In this way, the water level would drop enabling us to locate the point of entry of the water Surprisingly, nothing was observed during the pumping period, but I knew that this was the only method by which you could find the entrance of the water to the well. So I decided to repeat the process. But this time I instructed the man to stand still at one place and carefully observe any unusual thing happening inside the well. After a while, he suddenly raised his hands and shouted, “Alhamdollilah! I have found it. The sand is dancing beneath my feet as the water oozes out of the bed of the well.” Then he moved around the well during the pumping period and noticed the same phenomenon every where in the well. Actually the flow of water into the well through the bed was equal at every point, thus keeping the level of the water steady.
After I finished my observations I took the samples of the water for European laboratories to test. Before I left the Khaan-I-Kaba, I asked the authorities about the other wells around Makkah. I was told that these wells were mostly dry.
When I reached my office in Jeddah I reported my findings to my boss who listened with great interest but made a very irrational comment that the Zumzum well could be internally connected to the Red Sea. How was it possible when Makkah is about 75 Kilometers away from the sea and the wells located before the city usually remain dry?
The results of the water sample tested by the European laboratories and the one we analyzed in our own laboratory were found to be almost identical. The difference between Aab-e-Zumzum and other water (city water) was in the quantity of calcium and magnesium salts the contents of these was slightly higher in Aab-e-Zumzum. This may be why this water refreshes tired hajis, but more significantly, the water contains fluorides that have an effective germicidal action. Moreover, the remarks of the European laboratories showed that the water was fit for drinking. Hence the statement made by the Egyptian doctor was proved false. When this was reported to Shah Faisal, he was extremely pleased and ordered the contradiction of the report in the European Press.
In a way, it was a blessing that this study was undertaken to show the chemical composition of the water. In fact, the more you explore, the more wonders surface and you find yourself believing implicitly in the miracles of this water that God bestowed as a gift on the faithfuls coming from far and wide to desert land for pilgrimage.

            Let me sum up some of the features of Aab-e-Zumzum.

  • This well has never dried up. On the contrary it has always fulfilled the demand for water.
  • It has always maintained the same salt composition and taste ever since it came into existence.
  • Its portability has always been universally recognized as pilgrims from all over the world visit Khaan-I-Kaba every year for Hajj and Umrah, but have never complained about it. Instead, they have always enjoyed the water that refreshed them. Water tastes different at different places. Aab-e-Zumzum’s appeal has always been universal.
  • This water has never been chemically treated or chlorinated, as is the case with water pumped into the cities.
  • Biological growth and vegetation usually takes place in most wells. This makes the water unpalatable owing to the growth of algae causing taste and odor problems. But in the case of the Aab-e-Zumzum well there wasn’t any sign of biological growth.

Centuries ago Bibi Hajra searched desperately for water in the hills of Sufwa and Murwa to give to her newly-born son Hazrat Ismail (PBUH). As she ran from one place to another in  search of water, her child rubbed his feet against the sand. A pool of water surfaced, and by the grace of God, shaped itself into a well which came to be called aab-I-ZumZum.

Daily Dawn (Karachi) Jul, 12th 1996